We show that such a severe event is able to perturb the polar stratosphere for at least one year, leading to regional changes in the surface temperature during northern hemisphere winters..
Accordingly, this event forms a benchmark of the worst-case scenario in the SEP influence on the Earth’s environment.
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Using cosmogenic isotopic analyses of less than two dozen samples, Mackintosh et al. 551–554]) lift the veil of suspicion that has hung over the East Antarctic Ice Sheet.
Using state-of-the-art cosmic ray cascade and chemistry-climate models, we successfully reproduce the observed variability of cosmogenic isotope Be, around 775 AD, in four ice cores from Greenland and Antarctica, thereby validating the models in the assessment of this event.
We add to prior conclusions that any nitrate deposition signal from SEP events remains too weak to be detected in ice cores by showing that, even for such an extreme solar storm and sub-annual data resolution, the nitrate deposition signal is indistinguishable from the seasonal cycle.
They used protruding mountains as chronometric dipsticks (e.g., Stone et al., 2003), analyzing the Al content of submeter erratics left behind as the East Antarctic Ice Sheet lowered.
Nature's Time Machine How would you like to have a time machine that could take you back anywhere over the past 300,000 years? Scientists collect ice cores by driving a hollow tube deep into the miles-thick ice sheets of Antarctica and Greenland (and in glaciers elsewhere). Detected on this graph, which displays volcanic sulfate levels between 20,000 and 110,000 years ago, Toba was the largest eruption of the past 500,000 years.
In cores from Antarctica and Greenland, researchers have pinpointed the beginning of atomic-bomb testing in the mid-1950s. In some cases, scientists can even tell seasons apart, by using a laser to measure the concentration of dust particles. A., 1993, Abrupt increase in Greenland snow accumulation at the end of the Younger Dryas event, 336, 552-554. Also note that (though the graph, which has data up to two decades old, does not show this), at about 360 parts per million, the amount of CO, 345, 127-131.
Ice core sampling normally uses the assumption that the ring bands observed represents years.
One known example where this assumption was used is very misleading.
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